Panwa Accounting and Auditing - Thailand ,
Tax Knowledge and Structure

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Tax Knowledge - Tax Structure in Thailand

(Knowledge of Accounting Matters in Thailand click here)

For both direct and indirect taxes of Property and Real Estate Business in Thailand, we have summarized the information and detailed explanations related to your property business:

 1.   Tax Structure Summary:

No.

Particulars

Nature

Scope

Frequency

1

PND. 1

Withholding personal income tax returns

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Monthly

2

PND. 1 Kor

Withholding personal income tax returns (Special)

Preparation, Submission  and Filling & issuing Tax Certificate to the employees

Annual

3

PND. 2

Withholding Income Tax Return (Dividend, etc.)

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Monthly

4

PND.3, PND.53

Withholding corporate income tax returns  (Domestic)

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Monthly

5

PND.54

Withholding income tax remittance returns (Foreign)

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Monthly

6

PND.50

Corporate Income Tax returns

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Annual

7

PND.51

Corporate Income Tax returns

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Half yearly

8

PND. 90

Personal Income Tax returns

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Annual

9

PND. 91

Personal Income Tax Returns

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Annual

10

PND. 94

Personal Income Tax Returns

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Half yearly

11

PP.30

Value Added Tax Returns

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Monthly

12

PP.36

Value Added Tax Remittance Returns

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Monthly

13

PT.40

Specific Business Tax Returns

Preparation, Submission  and Filling

Monthly

Detailed explanations consisted of:

Direct Tax

Yearly Corporate Income Tax (PND.50)
This tax must be submitted to the Revenue Department within 150 days after the fiscal year has ended along with the audited financial statements. Case of ending period is December, the deadline for CIT in Thailand is around end of May.

Corporate income tax (CIT), imposed base on “net profit” below is tax rate for year 2014, 2015 and onwards (until any notice) as below:

Net Profie

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding 
Baht 5 million

for year 2014 and 2015

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding 
Baht 5 million

for year 2014 to 2015

0 - 300,000
0%
20%
300,001 - 3,000,000
15%
20%
Over 3,000,000
20%
20%

Corporate income tax (CIT), imposed base on “net profit” below is tax rate for year 2012 to 2013:

Net Profie

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2012

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2013 and onwards
(year 2014)

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2012

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2013 to 2014
(year 2014)

0 - 150,000
0%
0%
23%
20%
150,001 - 1,000,000
15%
15%
23%
20%
Over 1,000,000
23%
20%
23%
20%

Remark: For year 2008 - 2011 (for reference), Corporate Income Tax (CIT) was imposed by tax rate as below table:

Net profit

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding
Baht 5 million

For year 2008 to 2011

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding
Baht 5 million

For year 2008 to 2011

0 – 150,000

0%

30%

150,001 - 1,000,000

15%

30%

1,000,001 – 3,000,000

25%

30%

Over 3,000,000

30%

30%

 

Half Year Corporate Income Tax (PND.51)
This is the company’s corporate tax for 6 months (half year) of the fiscal year which must be filed to the Revenue Department within 2 months after the half year. (e.g. if the fiscal year of the company is ended on December, half year is June that means PND.51 must be submitted within August)

Personal Income Tax

Income tax is calculated as Progressive Tax Rates of

TAXABLE INCOME = Assessable Income - deductions – allowances

The income tax rate applicable to taxable income are as follows.

Taxable Income : from

Tax Rate

Tax Amount

Accumulated Tax

0 – 150,000

Exempt

- 0 -

- 0 -

150,001 -    300,000

5 %

7,500

7,500

300,001 - 500,000

10%

20,000

27,500

500,001 - 750,000

15%

37,500

65,000

750,001 - 1,000,000

20%

50,000

115,000

1,000,001 - 2,000,000

25%

250,000

365,000

2,000,000 - 4,000,000

30%

600,000

965,000

Over 4,000,000

35%

-

-

PND.91 Form, Taxpayer receiving income from employment during the period January to December, must pay personal income tax before the last day of March every year.
PND. 90 Form, Taxpayer receiving income from employment and the professions of law, medicine during the period January to December, must file and pay personal income tax before the last day of March every year.
PND.94 Form, is a half – year tax form of PND. 90, during the period January to June, must file a half-year return and pay personal income tax by September each year.

Indirect Tax

Withholding Tax
PND.1 Tax Form if the company had withheld the tax for salary of the staff.
PND.1 Kor. Tax Form if the company had withheld the tax for acquisition of salary of the staff.
PND.2 Tax Form if the company had withheld the tax for dividend, etc.
PND.3 and 53 Tax Form if the company had withheld the tax for services, rental, hiring, transportation, insurance, management fee, consulting, and etc (should to study withholding tax in Thailand).
PND.54 Tax Form if the company had withheld the tax from the company or juristic partnership incorporated under foreign laws and not carrying on business in Thailand but receiving assessable income from commission, fee of goodwill, dividend, share of profits or any other gain derived which is paid from or in Thailand.

Where the total of the payments due under a contract is less than Baht 1,000, the payments are not subject to withholding tax.

The following are the withholding tax rates on some important types of income:

Types of income

Withholding tax rate

1.  Dividends

10 %

2.  Interest

10 % if paid to associations or foundations
1 % in other case

3.  Royalties

10 % if paid to associations or foundations
3 % in other case

4.  Advertising Fees

2 %

5.  Service and professional fees

3 % if paid to Thai company or foreign company having permanent branch in Thailand

6.  Prizes

5 %

  • This W/H Tax must be submitted within 7 days of the following month otherwise, the company will have to pay for penalty and surcharge upon delayed submission.
  • The person liable (Company’s financial officer) to withhold tax shall issue to the taxpayer, from whom tax is withheld, a withholding tax certificate in duplicate, each copy having the same contents, as follows:

- In the case of withheld tax from advertising fees and professional fees etc., the certificate shall be issued immediately every time tax is withheld.
- In the case of withheld tax from employment etc., the certificate shall be issued within the 15th day of February in the year following the tax year, or within one month from the date of the termination of employment during the tax year of the taxpayer from whom tax is withheld.

Value Added Tax
This tax (PP.30), based on 7% of sales or purchase detailed in tax invoice must be submitted within 15 days of the following month otherwise, the company will have to pay for penalty and surcharge. In case that there is no VAT incurred for the month, the company must still submit the blank VAT form with the zero amount of tax to comply with the Thai taxation law.

Value added tax remittance returns (PP.36)
Based on 7% for supplier providing services overseas and such services are used in Thailand and must be submitted within 7 days of the following month.

Special Business Tax (PT.40)
SBT is calculated as a percentage of gross receipts. The businesses subject to SBT and the applicable rates include:

SBT

Tax Base

Rate

Real estate business

Gross receipts

0.11%

Banking or similar business

Interest, discounts, service fees, other fees, profits from foreign exchange

3.3 %

Life Insurance

Interest, service fees and other fees

2.75%

Pawn Brokerage

Interest, fees, remuneration from selling overdue property

2.75%

Repurchase Agreement

The difference between selling price and repurchasing price

3.3 %

Factoring

Interest, discounts, service fees and other fees

3.3 %

SBT return must be submitted within 15 days of the following month.

2. Submission of the financial statement to Ministry of Commerce (MOC)

Must submit the financial statement to MOC within 1 months from Annual General Meeting (AGM) and AGM must be held within 4 months from the end of fiscal year so if the ending period is on December, must submit around May.

3. Social Security Fund (SSF)

The company with one or more employees is required to make contributions to the Social Security Fund (SSF). Contributions to the Social Security Fund are made by employees, employers and the Government in equal proportion. The present rate of contributions to be made by each party is five percent of the employees’ salaries, up to a maximum amount of Baht 750 per month(during June – December 2009 that rate reduce to be three percent and maximum amount is Baht 450). The company must be submitted to the Social Security Office within 29th day of the following month or earlier in case that the said date happened to be Saturday or Sunday.

4. Property Taxes

A House and Land Tax is levied at the rate of 12.5 percent of the assessed rental value of the property. It is levied on the owner of the building, but does not apply to owner-occupied residences.

Knowledge in Accounting and Tax in Thailand for new company and investor

1.  Accounting and Auditing
It is necessary for a juristic company or partnership to prepare account, audit; and file the financial statement that was audited (by a Certified Public Accountant) to:

1.1 The Ministry of Commerce, within 1 month from Annual General Meeting (AGM) and AGM must be held within 4 months from fiscal year of accounting period. The documents to be submitted are:

• The audited financial statement, 2 sets.
• Shareholders List, 1 set.
• Form for submission the audited financial statement (Sor.Bor.Chor.3), 1 set (2 pages per set)

1.2 The Revenue Department, within 150 days from the closing date of each accounting period. The documents to be submitted are:

• The audited financial statement, 1 set.
• Form PND.50, 1 set.
(The above are list for submit in Bangkok area)

2. Corporate Income Tax (PND form)

Corporate Income Tax (CIT) is a direct tax levied on a juristic company or partnership which is established under Thai or foreign law and carries on business in Thailand or derive certain type of income from Thailand.

The term “juristic company or partnership” (hereinafter called “company”) means a limited company, a limited partnership or a registered ordinary partnership incorporated under Thai or foreign law as well as an association and a foundation engaged in business producing revenue. The term also includes any joint venture and any trading or profit-seeking activity carried on by a foreign government or its agency or by any other juristic body incorporated under a foreign law.

Juristic company or partnership is required to pay income tax from net profit, below is the sample of calculation and rate:
Income                                                                   300
Expense                                                                  200
Net profit                                                                100
Tax (15%, 25%, 30%, depending on cases)          15, 25, 30

Remarks
The tax rate for net profits which occurred on or after January 1st, 2007 (B.E.2550) of the juristic company or partnership that has paid-up capital in the closing date of the accounting period not exceeding 5 million Baht are:

Net Profie

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding 
Baht 5 million
for year 2012

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding 
Baht 5 million
for year 2013 and onwards
(year 2014)

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding 
Baht 5 million
for year 2012

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding 
Baht 5 million
for year 2013 to 2014
(year 2014)

0 - 150,000

0%

0%

23%

20%

150,001 - 1,000,000

15%

15%

23%

20%

Over 1,000,000

23%

20%

23%

20%

Income
Juristic company or partnership should record income according to the regulation of accrued income; when any services or products were rendered, though cash have not yet received, they should be recognized as income. The received income should be deposited to bank for selling and receiving controlling.   

Expenses
Juristic company or partnership should record expenses according to the regulation of accrued expenses; when any expenses were incurred, though they have been paid yet, they should be recorded as expenses. The expenses should be business related to show the actual status of financial statement.  The recorded expenses should have evidences to prove that:

1. The company / partnership is the payer.
2. The expenses are actually paid (by having receipts). If the recipient could not provide a receipt, the company or partnership should provide a receipt form the recipient to be filled up and sign in.
      
Some expenses can not be used in tax computation; we call these “Un-deductible Expenses”. But according to the principles of accounting, these have to be recorded to show the correct status of financial statement. Below are some examples of un-deductible expenses:

-   Entertainment expenses that are not covered in ministerial regulations. But if they are, they have to have sum exceeding 0.3% of the sum of income or the paid-in capital, whichever is larger.
-   Tax penalty or penalty for criminal case.
-   Expenses that cannot be proved who is the recipient or expenses that do not have any financial evidences.
-   Expenses that do not involve business process.
-   Un-reasonable high expenses, etc.

Tax Calculation
Juristic company or partnership is required to pay tax with the corresponding tax rates of 15%, 25% or 30% depending on their net income or net profit. The tax amount is computed by multiplying the net income or profit by the corresponding tax rate. If in any case that half year tax is paid already, then the total tax to be paid is computed by subtracting the half year tax from the tax computed in the net income.

In the calculation of CIT of a company carrying on business in Thailand, it is calculated from the company's net profit on the accrual basis. A company shall take into account all revenue arising from or in consequence of the business carried on in an accounting period and deducting therefore all expenses in accordance with the condition prescribed by the Revenue Code. As for dividend income, one-half of the dividends received by Thai companies from any other Thai companies may be excluded from the taxable income. However, the full amount may be excluded from taxable income if the recipient is a company listed in the Stock Exchange of Thailand or the recipient owns at least 25% of the distributing company's capital interest, provided that the distributing company does not own a direct or indirect capital interest in the recipient company. The exclusion of dividends is applied only if the shares are acquired not less than 3 months before receiving the dividends and are not disposed of within 3 months after receiving the dividends.

In calculating CIT, deductible expenses are as follows:

Ordinary and necessary expenses. However, the deductible amount of the following expenses is allowed at a special rate:

-  200% deduction of Research and Development expense,
-  150% deduction of job training expense,
-  200% deduction of expenditure on the provision of equipment for the disabled;

Interest, except interest on capital reserves or funds of the company;

Taxes, except for Corporate Income Tax and Value Added Tax paid to the Thai government;

Net losses carried forward from the last five accounting periods;

Bad debts;

Donations of up to 2% of net profits;

Provident fund contributions;

Entertainment expenses up to 0.3% of gross receipt but not exceeding 10 million Baht;

Depreciation: Provided that in no case shall the deduction exceed the following percentage of cost as shown below. However, if a company adopts an accounting method, which the depreciation rates vary from year to year, the company is allowed to do so provided that the number of years over which an asset depreciated shall not be less than 100 divided by the percentage prescribed below.

Remarks  This statement is just an example. In reality, the tax computation is more complex.
More information for Corporate Tax in Thailand

3. Half-Year Tax (PND.51 Form)

Juristic company or partnership is required to file half-year tax. The half-year tax is computed from the approximate figure of the whole year net profit divided by two.

The tax must be filed within 2 months after the closing date of the first half of the accounting period. Example: if the accounting period closes on December 31st, 2009, the tax must be filed within 2 months after June 30th, 2009; that mean the tax must be filed within August 31st, 2009.

Remarks

-   If the accounting period in the 1st year of business operation is less than 12 months, the company or partnership is not required, by law, to file the half year tax.
-   If a company or partnership is required to pay tax but did not file the PND.51 form, nor file after the last date, 20% of the taxable income should be paid as penalty.
-  If a company or partnership did not file the PND.51 form nor file after the last date, a 2,000 baht penalty may also be required to be paid.
-  Company or partnership is required to file PND.51 form together with the financial statement that is audited by a certified public accountant within 150 days from the closing date of each accounting period. Also, it should pay tax (if any), after deducting the half year tax paid.

4. Monthly Withholding Tax Form

From

For

PND.3

Payment for expenses of hires, wages and services etc. to personnel. Company is requires to withhold tax each time it pays to a personnel. And it is required to file to tax every 7th of the following month.

PND.53

The same as PND.3 but the recipient is as a juridical person.

PND.1

Use for withholding tax of salaries, wages and commissions.

Certain types of income paid to companies are subject to withholding tax at source. The withholding tax rates depend on the types of income and the tax status of the recipient. The payer of income is required to file the return (Form CIT 53) and submit the amount of tax withheld to the District Revenue Offices within seven days of the following month in which the payment is made. The tax withheld will be credited against final tax liability of the taxpayer. The following are the withholding tax rates on some important types of income:

Types of income

Withholding tax rate

1.  Dividends

10 %

2.  Interest

10 % if paid to associations or foundations
1 % in other case

3.  Royalties

10 % if paid to associations or foundations
3 % in other case

4.  Advertising Fees

2 %

5.  Service and professional fees

3 % if paid to Thai company or foreign company having permanent branch in Thailand
5% if paid to foreign company not having permanent branch in Thailand

6.  Prizes

5 %

Remarks
1)   Juristic company or partnership is required to provide 2 copies of withholding tax certificate for the withholder.
2)   Tax rate of withholding tax for PND.3 and PND.53 are mentioned in the Revenue code of TP.4/2528 that was revises by the revenue code of TP.101/2544 and the summarize table of tax rate is on page A2.
3)   Procedures for the monthly withholding tax computation are:

a. Income (whole year assessable income =salary*12 months)
b. Deductible expenses 40% of income (a.) but not exceeding Baht 60,000.
c. Income before Deductible allowances.
d. Deductible allowances:

i. Tax payer, if single Baht 30,000.
ii. Spouse, Baht 30,000.
iii. Studying children, Baht 17,000.(Studying outside Thailand, only Baht 15,000)
iv. Un-studying children, Baht 15,000.
v. Interest paid on purchased or construction of building but not exceeding Baht 100,000.
vi. Health insurance for tax payer, not exceeding Baht 100,000.
vii. Accumulated contribution to provident fund, not exceeding Baht 500,000.
viii. Accumulated contribution to Social security fund
ix. Donation to charity organization warranted by law, not exceeding 10% of the income after deducting the expenses and allowances
ix.Parent Baht 30,000 each, and must over 60 years old.
e. Taxable income (net income).
f. Tax computation according to the progressive tax rate from the taxable income.

Taxable Income

Tax Rate

0 - 100,000

0%

100,00  - 500,000

10%

500,001- 1,000,000

20%

1,000,001- 4,000,000

30%

More than  4,000,000

37%

g. Monthly withholding tax must be computed by dividing taxable income by number of months.
Remarks   The tax rate above is in accordance with the August 2009 update.
(See an example of personal income tax as below)

5. Summary Withholding Tax Form for Whole Year.

From

For

PND.1G

Summary of all payment paid and all taxes withheld on the previous year, for assessable income such as salaries, wages and commission (summarize from PND.1). It must be filed within February of the following year.

6. Value Added Tax (VAT)

The value added tax has been used since January 1st, 1992 replacing the commercial tax, in order to be consistent with the current economic situation. The concept is the tax will be paid by the consumer but it will be collected and transferred to the government by the company or partnership.

The company or partnership which gains income more than Baht 1.8 million is required to file for VAT registration and VAT Form (PP.30) should be filed every month.

However this information is just an introduction. Value added tax is every complicated and there are many related rules. The tax payer should study the details and observe the updates.

Tax Calculation

VAT liability = Output Tax - Input Tax
"Output Tax" is a tax collected or collectible by VAT registered person from his customers when goods or services are supplied.
"Input Tax" is a tax charged by another registered person on any purchase of goods or provision of services. The term also includes any tax charged on imported goods.

7. Tax Invoice

VAT registered person or entity is required to issue tax invoices every time the transactions are made showing details of nature and value of goods sold or services provided and also amount of VAT due. Tax invoice is used as evidence for claiming input tax credit. Tax invoice must contain at least the following elements;

- The word "Tax invoice" in a prominent place,
- Name, address and tax identification number of the issuer,
- Name and address of the purchaser or customers,
- Serial numbers of tax invoice and tax invoice books (if applicable),
- Description, value and quantity of goods or services;
- Amount of VAT chargeable, and
- Date of issuance.
- Another content that was specified by the director-general of the Revenue Department such as:

If a company or partnership would like to produce a tax invoice together with other commercial documents, receipts and invoices etc, but the tax invoice is not the first page of the set, it should be executed as the following:

a) Other documents, except the tax invoice, have to contain the word “Not Tax Invoice”.
b) Every page has to contain the word “A Set Document”
c) Every copy pages have to contain the word “Copy

8.  Tax Return and Payment (Corporate Income Tax)

Thai and foreign companies carrying on business in Thailand are required to file their tax returns (Form CIT 50) within 150 days from the closing date of their accounting periods. Tax payment must be submitted together with the tax returns. Any company disposing funds representing profits out of Thailand is also required to pay tax on the sum so disposed within seven days from the disposal date (Form CIT 54). 

In addition to the annual tax payment, any company subject to CIT on net profit is also required to make tax prepayment (Form CIT 51). A company is obliged to estimate its annual net profit as well as its tax liability and pay half of the estimated tax amount within two months after the end of the first six months of its accounting period. The prepaid tax is creditable against its annual tax liability.

As regards to income paid to foreign company not carrying on business in Thailand, the foreign company is subject to tax at a flat rate in which the payer shall withhold tax at source at the time of payment. The payer must file the return (Form CIT 54) and make the payment to the Area Revenue Branch Office within seven days of the following month in which the payment is made.

9.  Tax Return and Payment (Value Added Tax)

VAT taxable period is a calendar month. VAT return therefore must be filed on a monthly basis. VAT return (Form VAT 30) together with tax payment, if any, must be submitted to the Area Revenue Branch Office within 15 days of the following month. If taxpayer has more than one place of business, each place of business must file the return and make a payment separately unless there is an approval from the Director-General of the Revenue Department. Services utilized in Thailand supplied by service providers in other countries are also subject to VAT in Thailand. In such a case, service recipient in Thailand is obliged to file VAT return (Form VAT 36) and pay tax, if any, on behalf of the service providers.
In the case where supply of goods or services is also subject to Excise tax, VAT return and tax payment, if any, must be submitted to the Excise Department together with Excise tax return and tax payment within 15 days of the following month. In case of imported goods, VAT return and tax payment must be submitted to the Customs Department at the point of import.


10. Knowledge of Accounting Matters in Thailand

ACCOUNTING MATTERS IN THAILAND

Thailand continues to grow and succeed as a nation with strong economic impact in Southeast Asian region.  Future economic growth and development is dependent upon maximum resource allocation and related business planning and decisions made in part with information provided by the accounting professions in Thailand.  Having investment in Thailand's competitive market can be a real challenge because the country's complicated tax and accounting regulations which vary from international standards, are administered and implemented inconsistently, and are subject to common alteration or updates. Dealing with Thailand's financial regulations can be troublesome and inconvenient, without a partner by your side to assist and guide your way of doing business.

Therefore, it is only sensible that a single firm handles foreign business accounting matters in order to comply with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and Thai regulations.  Panwa Group of companies offers you the perfect solution to managing your accounts for your Thai business and we focus on your success. 

We specialize in assisting foreign companies in Thailand and we have especial expertise in translating and interpreting Thai business practices in use for foreign company.  We have licensed accountants, auditors as well as experienced and dedicated bookkeepers on our staffs.  We are able to provide accounting services and documents, both in English and Thai language as follows

  1. MONTHLY FINANCIAL REPORTS (BALANCE SHEET, P & L)

Income – Juristic company or partnership should record income according to the regulation of accrued income or monthly accrual basis of expenses; any income arises from services or products rendered, though cash have not yet received, should be recognized as income.  The received income should be deposited to bank for selling and receiving control.

Expenses – Juristic company or partnership should record expenses according to the regulation of accrued expenses or monthly accrual basis of expenses; any expenses incurred, though not yet paid, should be recorded as expenses.  The expenses should be business related to show the actual status of financial statement.  The recorded expenses should have supporting documents as evidence to prove that:

  • The company / partnership is the payer.
  • The expenses are actually paid (by having receipts).  If the recipient could not provide a receipt, the company or partnership should provide a receipt form to be filled up and signed by the recipient.

Some expenses can not be uses in tax computation; we call these “Un-deductible Expenses”.  But according to the principles of accounting, these have to be recorded to show the correct status of financial statement.  Below are some examples of un-deductible expenses:

  • Entertainment expenses that are not covered in ministerial regulations.  If covered, they have to be more than 0.3% of the total income or the paid-in capital, whichever is larger.
  • Tax penalty or penalty for criminal case
  • Expenses that cannot be proved who is the recipient or expense that do not have any financial evidences.
  • Expenses that do not involve business process
  • Unreasonable high expenses, etc

 

  1. ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT

Accounting Period:  A newly-established company or partnership should close accounts within 12 months from the date of its registration.  Thereafter, the accounts should be closed every 12 months.  The performance record is to be certified by the company auditor, approved by shareholders, and filed with the Business Development Office, Ministry of Commerce, within five months of the end of the fiscal year, and with the Revenue Department, Ministry of Finance, within 150 days of the end of the fiscal year.
If the company wishes to change its accounting period, it must obtain written approval from the Director General of the Revenue Department.

Accounting Principles:  In general, the basic accounting principles practiced in the United States are accepted in Thailand, as are accounting methods and conventions as sanctioned by law. The Institute of Certified Accountants and Auditors of Thailand is the authoritative group promoting the application of generally accepted accounting principles.
Any accounting method adopted by a company must be used consistently and may be changed only with approval of the Revenue Department.
Certain accounting practices of note include:

  • Depreciation - The Revenue Code permits the use of varying depreciation rates according to the nature of the classes of assets which have the effect of depreciating the assets over periods that may be shorter than their estimated useful lives. These maximum depreciation rates are not mandatory; a company may use lower rates that approximate the estimated useful lives of the assets. But if a lower rate is used in the books of the accounts, the same rate must be used in the income tax return.
  •  Accounting for Pension Plans - Contributions to a pension or provident fund are not deductible for tax purposes unless these are actually paid out to the employees, or the fund is approved as a qualified fund by the Revenue Department and is managed by a licensed fund manager.
  • Consolidation - Local companies with either foreign or local subsidiaries are not required to consolidate their financial statements for tax and other government reporting purposes, except for listed companies which must submit consolidated financial statements to the Securities and Exchange Commission of Thailand.
  • Statutory Reserve - A statutory reserve of at least five percent of the annual net profits arising from the business must be appropriated by the company at each distribution of dividends until the reserve reaches at least 10 percent of the company's authorized capital.
  • Stock Dividends - Stock dividends are taxable as ordinary dividends and may be declared only if there is an approved increase in authorized capital. The law requires the authorized capital to be subscribed in full by the shareholders.
  1. BOOKS OF ACCOUNTS AND STATUTORY RECORDS (JOURNAL ENTRIES AND GENERAL LEDGERS)

Rules in maintaining book of accounts ( Section 12, Accounts Act of 2000) - In keeping accounts, the person with duty to keep accounts must hand over the documents required for making accounting entries to the bookkeeper, correctly and completely, in order that the accounts so kept may show the results of operations, financial position or changes of financial position according to facts and accounting standards.
Accounting entries may be recorded in a foreign language, but there should be an appended Thai translation.  All accounting entries should be written in ink, typewritten, or printed.

Bookkeeping activities -  Our day-to-day bookkeeping activities merely consist of :

  • Posting or recording transactions in journal and on computer files and update the files when needed.
  • Review computer printouts against regularly maintained journals and make necessary corrections.
  • Review invoices and statements to ensure that all the information appearing on them is accurate and complete,
  • Compare computer reports with actual reports
  • Verify records of transactions posted by other staff by checking figures, postings, and documents to ensure that they are correct, mathematically accurate, and properly coded.

We also use specialized accounting software, spreadsheets, and databases to make our bookkeeping services more convenient for our clients. This makes us save more time and to do additional responsibilities and services, such as payroll, procurement, and billing. Many of these responsibilities need writing and sending letters, email and fax messages and making phone calls to clients.

Some of our major accounting functions and your benefits includes:

  • For in house accounting, our professional accounting team are very glad to teach/train, review and joint with your inside meeting and teach your staff how to do by themselves all the possible way to achieve a competitive business growth.
  • We provide satisfactory services, thus, allowing you to focus on your business activities and objectives without interruptions.
  • Our monthly or quarter financial report makes you understand the financial status of your business.
  • Our payroll services helps your payroll function effective and efficient.
  • You only pay the necessary tax you have to pay.
  • Our team can help you do business planning for your success.

Furthermore, our services shall be practiced carefully under the Accounting Act of B.E 2000.  The Accounting Act provides the basic requirements relating to financial reporting by all business entities incorporated in Thailand.  It requires that, registered partnerships, limited companies, public limited companies established under Thai Law, and joint ventures and foreign entities operating in Thailand under the Revenue Code have a duty to maintain books of accounts. According to the rules prescribed under the Accounting Act; such accounts must be kept for a period of at least 5 years after the accounting period. The rules prescribe that Thai Accounting Standards (TAS) are mandatory for accounting and financial reporting by all business entities. The Ministry of Commerce, Bureau of Business Supervision of the Department of Business Development, is responsible for administering and implementing the Accounting Act.

In reality, a company or partnership should study more details have awareness with the updates.

Q & A

Q1: Buy new year gift for customer can be used as VAT credit or not?

Panwa: Input VAT from by buying Gift or giving customer a Gift for new year or custom occasion such as New Year, Songkarn, open new brand (product) by enclosing the name card of the company which declare company’s name with address and logo, these Input Vat can not be claimed as VAT credit from Output VAT under Sector 82/5(4) of the Revenue Code and item no. 5 of Announcement of Director of Revenue Department ( no.17)

Regarding Output VAT of that Gift which the company has obtained on the custom occasion as general business with proper value (not over value), the company is not liable to include obtained Gift as value of tax base of Output VAT, under Revenue Code Sector 79(4) and item no. 2(6) of Announcement of Director of Revenue Department (no.40).

Q2: the company give customer a new year gift, this value of Gift can be used as deductible expenses or not? And how much does Revenue Department can accept or allow as deductible expense and the Input Vat can be used or not?

Panwa

    • Corporate Income Tax (CIT); value of Gift can be deductible expenses not exceeding Baht 2,000 each customer (person) under The Ministry Rule no.143 (B.E.2522).
    • VAT; the Input VAT incurred from buying Gift to give is unclaimable VAT under Sector 82/5(6) of the Revenue Code and item no. 5 of Announcement of Director of Revenue Department (no. 17).
Q3:What are Government expected tax amount of dormant company I have to take in consideration for one year?
Panwa: Taxation of dormant company base on kind of related tax below;
a. Corporate income tax (CIT), imposed base on “net profit” below is tax rate for year 2012 and 2013 as below
Net Profie

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2012

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2013 and onwards

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2012

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2013 to 2014

0 - 150,000
0%
0%
23%
20%
150,001 - 1,000,000
15%
15%
23%
20%
Over 1,000,000
23%
20%
23%
20%

 Normally, net profit will be calculated by = Income – Expenditure, for this should concentrate on kind of income as below situation:

  • You put capital fund into bank( such as saving account), this kind of income is “Interest from Bank”
  • You do not put that capital fund into bank that mean still keep in your bank, that fund must be recorded as “Loan to director”, this kind of income is “Interest” form its loan. Applicable interest rate for this borrowing is 4% per annum.

 Example;  Case study:
Capital is Baht 10 million, Expenditure Baht 20,000 for 1 year period, tax amount will be paid is Baht

(4%10,000,000 – 20,000 = Net profit = 380,000 Baht,
CIT - Tax amount = 23%380,000 =  Baht 87,400 per year) , applicable tax rate for year 2012 is 23%
**SBT – Tax amount = 3.3% of 400,000 = Baht 13,200 per year, will be paid when settle interest of loan.

Remark; We advise you avoid a huge of tax amount by 2 ways below:

  • 1. Setting up company with capital no exceeding Baht 5 million
    In the same case study; tax amount for capital Baht 5 million is
    CIT = Baht 4,500
    per year.
    **SBT = Baht 6,600 per year.
  • 2. Setting up company with capital no exceeding Baht 5 million and paid up only 25% of registered capital.
    In the same case study; tax amount for capital Baht 5 million with paid up capital 25% is
    CIT = Baht 0.00
    per year.
    **SBT = Baht 1,650 per year.
            
  • 3. We recommends you to set up company with capital of Baht 1 million and paid up only 25% of registered capital.
    In the same case study; tax amount for capital Baht 1 million with paid up capital 25% is
    CIT = Baht 0.00
    per year.
    **SBT = Baht 330 per year.
     

b. Half year tax, except for the first year, for the second year and onward will be paid at least 50% of CIT, and can use its tax as credit amount for CIT’s calculation at ending period.

c. Monthly withholding tax, will withhold and be paid within 7th day of the following month. Normally, dormant company no business activity will no withholding tax amount.

 d. VAT, there are no requirement for registration of dormant company because of income still not exceeding Baht 1.8 million. VAT registration can be done later when start the business activity.

e. **Special Business Tax (SBT), base on “Interest Income” from “Loan to director” by applicable tax rate is 3.3% per annum.

Remark ( inforation up date on July-2012)
Applicable CIT tax rate for year 2012, 2013 and onwards (until any notice):

Net Profie

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2012

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2013 and onwards

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2012

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding
Baht 5 million

for year 2013 to 2014

0 - 150,000
0%
0%
23%
20%
150,001 - 1,000,000
15%
15%
23%
20%
Over 1,000,000
23%
20%
23%
20%

Remark: For year 2008 - 2011 (for reference), Corporate Income Tax (CIT) was imposed by tax rate as below table:

Net profit

Incentive for SME
Capital not exceeding
Baht 5 million

For year 2008 to 2011

Ordinary company
Capital exceeding
Baht 5 million

For year 2008 to 2011

0 – 150,000

0%

30%

150,001 - 1,000,000

15%

30%

1,000,001 – 3,000,000

25%

30%

Over 3,000,000

30%

30%


For more information, please feel free to contact us:
Mr.Prasert Poothong, Director, CPA Thailand
Phone Nos.: +66 2 933 6121, +66 2 933 6122, +66 2 933 5601
(for call inside Thailand use 0 instead of +66)
Fax:
+66 2 933 6120
Email: mgr@panwa.co.th
Please CC: to our alternate email: panwagroup@gmail.com

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